HEAD OF STATE: Suprreme Chancellor
LEADERS: The Supreme Chancellor
SECONDARY LEADERS: The Galactic Senate
For more than twenty thousand years, the Galactic Republic has been the most civilized and advanced power in the known galaxy. Governed by the Galactic Senate with representatives from hundreds of star systems and planets, the Republic has been the center of peace and progress, a bright beacon in the darkness of outer space.
The revered Jedi Order has sworn itself to defend the Republic, to battle the darkness, and to bring peace and balance to the greater galaxy. The Jedi have served for millennia in this capacity, and in that time they have earned themselves the admiration of their allies, and the hatred of their enemies.
The Republic itself was formed in 25,053 BBY when the first “Galactic Constitution” was signed on Coruscant, after the Corellian Hyperdrive connected many worlds in the Galactic Core. Whether this means that Coruscant was the original homeworld of humans or simply the most powerful world at the time is still up for debate, and there has been little said about the event other than that it occurred. The Republic was made up of several hundred thousand worlds.
the Old Sith Wars of c.4000 BBY almost destroyed the Republic. During the Great Sith War (4000 BBY–3996 BBY), the Sith Lords Exar Kun and Ulic Qel-Droma, along with their Krath and Mandalorian allies, waged war on the Republic, causing devastation until they were defeated by the combined Jedi and Republic forces. Afterward, the Great Hunt (3995–3993 BBY) and the Cleansing of the Nine Houses occurred.
These would be followed by the Mandalorian Wars (3966—3960 BBY). They were fought between Mandalorian forces hoping to expand their colonies beyond the Outer Rim Territories and the Galactic Republic, which feared further incursions. The Mandalorian Wars were a prelude to the more devastating Jedi Civil War (3959 BBY–3956 BBY). The Jedi Civil War, also known to some as the War of the Star Forge, was fought between the Republic and the Sith Empire under Darth Revan and Darth Malak. It was possibly the most destructive conflict of that entire era, with many worlds, including Taris, Dantooine, and Telos IV, being devastated by the Sith fleet.
The Republic has trained new combat squads of Special Forces, disciplined teams capable of working together with near-perfect efficiency. These elite troopers often work in conjunction with the Jedi, but in many places the troopers have taken the leading role in providing the Republic’s defense.
Despite a post-war economic depression and the continued expansion of its enemies, the spirit of the Republic remains independent, brave, and strong. New leaders are stepping forward even now to stand against the Sith Empire, liberate the galaxy, and restore the Republic to its former glory.
Organization of the Galactic Republic
The Republic began as a mutual protection and economic alliance among a number of planets in the galactic core. The Republic's greatest failing was its lack of formal organization. Much of its operation was based on nonbinding constitutional conventions, which were more often ignored and undermined by corrupt and power-hungry politicians than heeded. Coalition governments were common, with special interests defining the legislative agenda. The Senate, in the later years of the Republic, was so ineffectual that many politically connected corporations and informal blocs of ideologically like-minded planets could essentially do what they wanted; corrupt governmental bodies even made it possible for certain entities, such as the Trade Federation, to construct de facto sovereign and immense military forces.
However, the waning years of the Republic were a time of corruption and great social injustice. The Senate became divided between those who genuinely wished to uphold the values and ideals of the Republic, and those who wished to further their own goals. After a series of weak and ineffectual Chancellors and a crisis involving the invasion of the planet Naboo by the Trade Federation over a tariff passed in the Senate, the time had come for strong leadership to end the corruption.
Within the government, much of the bureaucracy was handled by the General Ministry. Within this body were the Ministries of State, Intelligence, Commerce, Defense, Education, Finance, Licenses and Permits, Public Information, Science, Security and Intelligence, Internal Security, and Science and Education.
The Legislative Branch
Each member state (system governments) returned a representative (a senator) to a central legislative body (the Senate). Senators were the ambassadors of their home worlds, and member worlds were able to maintain their government and society in accordance with local beliefs, customs, and traditions. There was a wide variety of different local governments along the political spectrum: from monarchies to republics to hive-like communes. In some systems, the senator was elected to that post; in others, the world government appointed the senator.
The Senate was headquartered in an enormous building containing many floating platforms, each of which contained several senators. Each platform in the Senate represented a "sector" of the galaxy, with one senator from each planet in that sector. Some platforms represented individual worlds, others the powerful corporations and guilds such as the Trade Federation. Along with the senators, the leaders of the individual member planets also had the power to vote in the Senate and introduce legislation.
Senators received one vote in all matters—procedural and substantive. The Chancellor was elected from within the Senate. The assembly was in turn divided into individual committees, each specializing in specific fields of government administration, and which were responsible for creating legislation to be reviewed by the full assembly.
Although legislation passed by the Senate was binding to all member worlds, most of the everyday legislation followed by citizens of the Republic was created at the planetary, sector, or regional level. Therefore, the main functions of the Senate were to mediate disputes between members, provide for the common defense, and regulate inter-system trad
The Executive Branch
The members of the Senate would then elect a Supreme Chancellor from amongst their ranks who would serve as the Republic's head of government (and, by default, head of state) and chief diplomat.
The office was largely powerless in the last years of the Republic and the Chancellor served mainly as an officiator of parliamentary procedure and the first among equals in the Senate. However, it had the authority to call an Extraordinary Session of the Senate, and could invoke "Chancellor's prerogative" in circumventing minor aspects of the Senate's parliamentary procedure. He also was the head of the Senatorial Council.
It was still a very prestigious position, however, and the Chancellor had a grand office in both the Senate Rotunda's Chancellery and in the dome-like Senate Office Building in Galactic City. The Chancellor was properly addressed as "Your Excellency." The symbol of the office of the Chancellor, as well as the Galactic Senate as a whole, was a fanned spear. This cygnet was also emblazoned prominently on the Chancellor's podium in the center of the Senate Rotunda's Main Chamber. When in the Main Chamber, the Chancellor usually wore a Veda cloth robe. The Chancellor was elected from among the senators who made up the Galactic Senate and served a term of office that lasted for four standard years. A Chancellor could legally serve only two consecutive four-year terms before he or she had to step down due to term limits.
The Judicial Branch
The Supreme Court was the highest court of law in the Old Republic, and composed the judicial branch of the Republic's government. The Supreme Court was headquartered in the Galactic Courts of Justice Building on Coruscant.
The Court consisted of twelve justices (each addressed as "Your Honor"); one of them was the Chief Justice who headed both the Court and the judicial branch. The Supreme Chancellor apparently could influence appointments to the Court in some way (at least during Palpatine's tenure), most likely through nominations.
In addition to serving as a "court of last resort" and as a determiner of constitutional legality, the Supreme Court also tried cases involving the highest politicians and most noteworthy people in the Republic. However, at least some cases (including the trial of senators for treason) were handled by the Senate.